Law of Media in two EX-communist countries – Albania and Poland
Poland and Albania are two countries with different cultures, 1837 km miles far from each-other and sometimes it looks like the only thing in common between them is the part of „the communism” in their history. What also these two countries have in common is the transition, having a fragile Democracy which can be very easily understanded by law of the Media.
Both of these countries, in their law, which can be easily reflected in our law about the Media, which is supposed to be the refraction of Democracy. What is interesting is that in both these ex-communists countries there is a law for the freedom of speech, and the Media can always say the truth, to not be one-sided on their publication but there also is not any law that state that the owner of one media must to be a journalist or someone in this field. In these both countries exists this possibility, to being an Media owner, to everyone who can be an legal person, an organization, political party etc. This law allows everyone to be an owner, it doesn’t matter if the work will be prepared by one professional journalist or not, the fact that anybody can be an owner of Media can be a good chance for having ‘an commercial’ Media.
Having a ‘commercial Media’ means that having a Media which can be ‘a fish’ for politicians. So, it can be so easy to be corrupt. The permission from law for being a media owner, gives to every businessman or businesswoman the opportunity to hire journalists, or people who like to work as journalists without being sceptical or critical for their work, or professionalism. Is a fact that in these two countries the Media is used by politicians like a good channel for publishing their propaganda, and the fact that owner of Media can be everyone, gives the chance to all of people who are interesting only on doing business to be part of “political pacts” and to publish on their own media what they want and not what really people need.
What looks interesting between Albanian and Polish Law about Media is that they are changed so far, and this is connecting with the fact that both these countries came from the same past, the communist and there are a lot of problems about understanding the need for free expression and being accepted from others elements of society, like politic. In Albania there is not a specific Law about the Press and the focus of lawmakers is on Audio-Visual Media which has the most attentive public.
In 1993 in Albania was the first law about Media, which oprovated the freedom of expression and it was changed during these years: 1977, 1999, 2013 and some regulation or changes were ready to be passed by lawmakers about “Anti-defamation”. Intervention of “Venice Commission” about this law, which could be dangerous for Democracy and the freedom of the expression made possible for the law to be reviewed by lawmakers and to not have a Media like 30 years ago, when freedom was a goal.
Now the future of Journalism is the online Media and looks that both these countries are preparing themselves for being more updated about new invitations which come from the west Europe and USA. A series studies have been done about online Media and its priorities and its weakness and there are a lot of new newpoint of views that sometimes need to be regulated by law for having a better and efficient journalism.
Poland and Albania are two of EX-communist countries which need to have more regulation of Media’s Law and this regulation begins with the role specification of “the Owners of the Media” and the role of journalists for being protected by law and being just one worker who can lose its work in every moment.